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Death Rock

Death-Rock, auch Death-Punk genannt, bezeichnet eine in den späten 1970ern in den Vereinigten Staaten entstandene Musikbewegung, welche sich dem Post-Punk unterordnet.

Einflüsse

Death-Rock entwickelte sich im amerikanischen Post-Punk parallel zum britischen Gothic Rock. Derweil nährte sich der amerikanische Death-Rock auch aus Hard- und Shock-Rock, welcher im britischen Gothic Rock weniger in Erscheinung trat. Ein wesentlicher Vorreiter für beide Stile waren neben Iggy Pop und David Bowie derweil The Cramps und David Letts, welcher als Dave Vanian mit der britischen Punk-Band The Damned 1977 in Los Angeles auftrat und die Ästhetik der aufkeimenden Szene mit seinem Vampir-Outfit und Friedhofsästhetik beeinflusste.[1]

„The performers that I drew inspiration off of would be Alice Cooper, Ozzy, Joan Jett, the Runaways, the Ramones, and the Damned.“

„Inspiration bezog ich von Interpreten wie Alice Cooper, Ozzy, Joan Jett, The Runaways, die Ramones und The Damned.“

– Dinah Cancer (45 Grave)[2]

„I thought if we were lucky, people would think we were like the Cramps or Alice Cooper.“

„Ich dachte wenn wir Glück hätten, würden die Leute denken wir wären wie the Cramps oder Alice Cooper.“

– Rozz Williams (Christian Death)[3]

Entstehung

Der stark geschminkte Jack Grisham Live mit T.S.O.L.

Death-Rock entwickelte sich in den späten 70ern, frühen 80ern im musikalischen Untergrund von Los Angeles[4] und Washington D.C.[5] im Kontext des entstehenden Hardcore Punk als Weiterentwicklung des Punk Rock. Während der Hardcore Punk jedoch „in seinen anfängen schlicht und einfach eine härter gespielte version von punk die aber noch definitiv teil der punk szene war […] nur schneller, lauter und härter“[sic!][6] , spielten in den Anfängen von Death-Rock psychedelische und surreale Aspekte eine wichtige Rolle, was im starken Kontrast zum Hardcore Punk stand. Dennoch wurden die musikalischen Strömungen lange als eine gemeinsame Punk-Szene betrachtet.

„Es gab keine verschiedenen Bezeichnungen für verschiedene Looks, das ganze Spektrum an Bekleidung und Frisuren - alles wurde als Punk angesehen. Da gab es Kids mit zerrissenen Jeans und Springerstiefeln, andere kleideten sich wie Nosferatu, einige trugen S/M-Klamotten[…] andere T-Shirts mit Sicherheitsnadeln. […] Erst gegen 1984 begannen sich verschiedene Looks mit verschiedenen Bezeichnungen herauszubliden.“

– Monica Richards(Madhouse/Faith and the Muse)[5]

Rozz Williams

Die enge Verbundenheit der amerikanischen Post-Punk-Szene führte auch zu gemeinsamen Veröffentlichungen wie dem Sampler Hell Comes to your House Vol.1, auf welchem neben den Death-Rock-Protagonisten Super Heroines, 45 Grave und Christian Death auch Social Distortion, Rhino 39 und The Conservatives vertreten waren.[7] Ähnlich dem britischen Gothic Rock kristallisierten sich auch aus dem amerikanischen Post-Punk einige Bands mit einer gemeinsamen psychedelisch geprägten und düsteren Attitüde heraus.[8]

„The Deathrockers were splintered off from the punk/hardcore scene that was going on at the time. We played punk rock but we loved Halloween and we looked like vampires. So the phrase, Death rock was born. We had a deeper appreciation of the darker side of slice o’ life. It was our way of giving back to something we enjoyed.“

„Die Deathrocker spalteten sich von der Punk/Hardcoreszene ab, die damals existierte. Wir spielten Punk Rock aber wir liebten Halloween und sahen wie Vampire aus. Damit war die Bezeichnung Death-Rock geboren. Wir hatten ein tieferes Verständnis für die dunkele Seite des Lebens. Es war unsere Art etwas von dem zurückzugeben was uns gefiel.“

– Dinah Cancer(45 Grave)[2]

Während an der Ost-Küste in New York die frühen Misfits als Vorläufer gelten, kämpften sich im Westen Bands wie Christian Death, 45 Grave, die frühen T.S.O.L., Theatre of Ice, Kommunity FK, Super Heroines oder Voodoo Church durch die Clubs von Los Angeles, wo die lokale Presse zum ersten Mal die Bezeichnung Death-Rock als Bezeichnung für die dort in Horrorästhetik auftretenden Bands nutzte.[9]

Weiterentwicklung, Abspaltung und Niedergang

Dinah Cancer von 45 Grave bei einem Auftritt 2007.

Anfang der 1980er Jahre entwickelten zwei wesentliche Strömungen im Death-Rock. Während der Horrorpunk der frühen Vertreter 45 Grave und the Misfits als eine selbstironisch inszenierte Punk-Variante mit Elementen aus Surf-Rock und Rockabillybegann,[10][11] spielten Bands wie Christian Death und Kommunity FK eine dem britischen Gothic Punk ähnliche Mixtur aus tiefem schwerem Bass, tribalartigem Schlagzeug sowie kratzend- und quietschend-polternder Gitarre, mit Einflüssen aus Hard Rock undSchock-Rock.[8][12] Insbesondere die ersten Veröffentlichungen von Christian Death veränderten den im Punk verankerten Klang des Death-Rock nachhaltig und prägten somit ein Gegenstück zum britischen Gothic Rock.[13]

„The sound of Christian Death was about to change and become more affected and various remaining in the death rock, which is in fact the American gothic rock, quite different from the UK gothic scene of the 80s, fields that Rozz Williams with Christian Death formed with "Deathwish" (1981) and "Only Theatre Of Pain" (1982).“

„Der Klang von Christian Death beeinflusste und veränderte nachhaltig den Death Rock, welcher faktisch der sich von der britischen Gothic Rock Szene der 80er unterscheidende amerikanische Gothic Rock ist, ein Stil den Rozz Williams mit Christian Death mit ‚Deathwish‘ (1981) und ‚Only Theatre Of Pain‘ (1982) begründet hatte.“

– Der Rozzengarten[14]

Only Theatre of Pain wurde für den Death Rock ein maßgebendes Werk, dass in seiner Wirkung auf den Death-Rock mit dem Debütalbum der Ramones für den Punk verglichen wurde.[15] Während sich ein Teil der (später auch als „American Gothic“ bezeichneten) Bands fortan als Äquivalent zum britischen Gothic Punk und zum Teil des Gothic Rock erwies, legten andere Gruppen, die weiterhin im Punk verankert waren, den Grundstein für das, was unter der Titulierung Horrorpunk geläufig wurde. Insbesondere Interpreten wie 45 Grave und the Misfits blieben im Punk verhaftet und inszenierten sich in zum Teil comic-artiger Halloween- und Schwarz-weiß-Horrorfilmästhetik.[16]

Mit der steigenden Popularität und der Trennung der Begrifflichkeiten, änderte sich die Wahrnehmung hinsichtlich des Begriffes Death-Rock, wodurch zunehmend nur solche Bands als Death-Rock wahrgenommen wurden, welche dem britischen Gothic Rock und derdazugehörigen Szene artverwandt auftraten und spielten. Derweil empfanden die Protagonisten des Death-Rock die Zuordnung zum Gothic Rock als einengend und unbefriedigend.

„So death rock as we saw it, was taking the visual and lyrical aspect of the Cramps, and attaching it to rock'n'roll. Only People started calling it gothic rock instead, and it ended up going to a very different place we had intended.“

„Also Death-Rock, wie wir ihn verstanden nahm die visuellen und lyrischen Aspekte von The Cramps und hefteten sie an Rock ’n’ Roll. Nur das Leute anfingen es Gothic Rock zu nennen, und es endete damit, dass es in eine völlig andere Richtung lief, als wir eigentlich beabsichtigt hatten.“

– Rozz Williams[9]

Bis zur Mitte der 1980er Jahre hatte sich die Death-Rock-Szene von Los Angeles zerschlagen. 1983 löste Chris Desjardins The Flesh Eaters auf. 45 Grave lösten sich 1984 nach der Scheidung von Sängerin Dinah Cancer und Gitarrist Paul Cuttler vorerst auf.[17] Rozz Williams löste Christian Death 1982 auf und reformierte die Band 1983 in veränderter Besetzung, verließ aber kurz darauf Los Angeles und orientierte sich mit Christian Death stärker in Richtung Gothic Rock.[18] T.S.O.L. orientierten sich mit Revenge 1986 mehr am Hard Rock.[19] Patrick Mata von Kommunity FK pendelte derweil die zweite Hälfte der 1980er Jahre zwischen der britischen und amerikanischen Szene, gestaltete verschiedene Projekte, von denen lediglich Stavio Luvbox zwei Alben fern vom Death-Rock veröffentlichte, und trat jenseits einiger Auftritte über Jahre nicht mit Kommunity FK in Erscheinung.[20] Auch weitere Interpreten des Death-Rock orientierten sich um oder verschwanden von der Bildfläche, so dass um 1984 die erste Hochphase des Stils zum erliegen kam.[21]

Folgen

In der Mitte der 1980er Jahre verlor der Begriff Death-Rock an Einfluss und wurde zunehmend mit dem Terminus Gothic Rock gleichgesetzt. Insbesondere die Popularität einzelner Vertreter des Gothic Rock wurden als Ursprung dieses Wandels ausgemacht.

„I don't know how things went from death rock to Goth, but I think the Sisters had something to do with it.“

„Ich weiß nicht wie die Sache vom Deathrock zum Goth wurde, aber ich glaube die Sisters hatten etwas damit zu tun.“

– Rozz Williams[21]

Einige Jahre nach der Auflösung der Kernszene im Gothic Rock etablierte sich der Begriff Death-Rock als Stilbezeichnung für einen „makaberen oder düsteren Rock ’n’ Roll mit treibenden, harten Gitarren und Haupteinflüssen des 1977er Punk Rock oder 1982er Hardcore Punk.“[22]

Im Nachgang führte auch das Aufeinandertreffen des Gothic Rock und Death-Rock zu einer Neuordnung und Vermischung beider Szenen und auch in Amerika zu einer Welle neuer Bands, welche sowohl auf den Death-Rock als auch auf den Gothic Rock als Einfluss zurückgriffen. Eine Entwicklung die mitunter als American Gothic bezeichnet wurde.[9][4]

Revival

Im neuen Jahrtausend kam es zuerst in den USA, durch Bands wie The Deep Eynde, Cinema Strange, Scarlet’s Remains, Subtonix oder Tragic Black, zu einem deutlich gothic-punk-orientierten Death-Rock-Revival, dessen Auswirkungen sich auch auf Europa (insbesondere Großbritannien und Deutschland) ausweiteten. Dieses Revival wird, aufgrund seiner stilistischen und optischen Anlehnung an den Stil des Batcave-Club im London der 1980er, häufig als „Batcave-Revival“ bezeichnet. In Deutschland drückten besonders Bands wie Murder at the Registry und Bloody Dead and Sexy der Wiederauferstehung der Bewegung ihren Stempel auf.Bis heute wird das Revival von immer neu aufkeimenden Bands oder Formationen wie u.a Christ Vs. Warhol (Dissent,2011), Novocaine Mausoleum (Novocaine Mausoleum,2006) Fangs on Fur, Dystopian Society (Violations,2013) und Readership Hostile aufrechterhalten.

Bedeutende Vertreter (Ursprung)


Characteristics


Deathrock songs usually incorporate a driving, repetitive rhythm section; the drums and bass guitar laying the foundation within a 4/4 time signature while the guitars either play simple chords or effects-driven leads to create atmosphere. Lyrics can vary, but are typically introspective and surreal, and deal with the dark themes of isolation, gloom, disillusionment, loss, life, death, etc.; as can the style, varying from harsh and dark to upbeat, melodic and tongue-in-cheek. Deathrock lyrics and other musical stylistic elements often incorporate the themes of campy horror and sci-fi films, which in turn leads some bands to adopt elements of rockabilly and surf rock.[1]

The frequently simplistic song structures, heavy atmosphere and rhythmic music place a great demand on lead vocalists to convey complex emotions, so deathrock singers typically have distinctive voices and strong stage presences.

Despite the similar sounding name, deathrock has no connection to death metal, which is an extreme subgenre of heavy metal.


History


Etymology

The term "death rock" was first used in the 1950s[2] to describe a thematically related genre of rock and roll, which began in 1958 with Jody Reynolds' "Endless Sleep" and ended in 1964 with J. Frank Wilson's "Last Kiss." These songs about dead teenagers were noted for their morbid yet romantic view of death, spoken word bridges, and sound effects. The Shangri-Las' "Leader of the Pack" is arguably the best known example of the '50s/'60s use of the term.

The term deathrock re-emerged 15 years later in 1979 to describe the sound of various West Coast punk bands.[3] The term most likely came from one of three sources: Rozz Williams, the founding member of Christian Death, to describe the sound of his band; the music press, reusing the 1950s term to describe an emerging subgenre of punk; and/or Nick Zedd's 1979 film They Eat Scum, which featured a fictitious cannibalistic "death rock" punk band called "Suzy Putrid and the Mental Deficients."[4]

Origins

The earliest influences for some deathrock acts, such as 45 Grave for example, can be traced to the horror-themed novelty rock and roll acts of the late 1950s and early 1960s such as Bobby "Boris" Pickett and Zacherle with "Monster Mash"; Screamin' Jay Hawkins with "I Put a Spell on You"; and Screaming Lord Sutch & the Savages with "Murder in the Graveyard". These songs used sound effects to create a creepy atmosphere, dealt with taboo subjects (such as cannibalism) in a humorous, often campy manner, and are still occasionally played at deathrock clubs.

This horror influence on rock music continued into the 1970s with theatrical hard rockers Alice Cooper[5] and Kiss. Rozz Williams specifically credited the 1970s output of both Alice Cooper and Kiss as childhood influences. 45 Grave also covered Alice Cooper's "School's Out".

Other rock bands who influenced many early goth/deathrock artists include The Doors, David Bowie, The Velvet Underground, Iggy Pop and the Stooges, The Cramps, T. Rex, New York Dolls, The Damned, MC5 and Richard Hell and the Voidoids(For a more complete listing of influential artists, see Gothic Rock predecessors.)

Horror movies also directly influenced deathrock artists. According to 45 Grave singer Dinah Cancer, Italian horror movies were a large influence on 45 Grave's visual style. Zombie movies influenced many deathrock artists, especially George A. Romero's Night of the Living Dead (1968) and its sequels. John Russo's Return of the Living Dead (1985) which featured Linnea Quigley and a mostly punk soundtrack[6] influenced later deathrock bands. Horror-themed TV shows, such as The Addams Family, The Munsters, The Twilight Zone, Dark Shadows etc., also provided some visual influence, as did spookily-clad horror movie hosts on TV such as Vampira in Los Angeles,John Zacherle in Philadelphia and New York, Elvira in Los Angeles (then later nationally), and Ghoulardi in Cleveland.

However, horror was not the only influence on deathrock. Film noir, surrealism, cabaret, and various religious iconography (particularly Catholicism and Voodoo) supplied much lyrical and visual inspiration to deathrock artists.[1]

Emergence

Deathrock first emerged in the United States in the late 1970s as a darker offshoot of the pre-existing punk rock and the emerging hardcore LA music scene. The most active and best documented deathrock music scene was inLos Angeles, which centered on the bands The Flesh Eaters (1977), Kommunity FK (1979), 45 Grave (1979), Christian Death (1979), Gun Club (1981), Super Heroines (1981), Pompeii 99 (1981), Voodoo Church (1981), Ex-VoTo (1982), Burning Image (1982), Radio Werewolf (1984) and Screams for Tina (1985).[1][7] Other western cities in the United States also had bands which would later be described as deathrock such as Theatre of Ice (1978) in Fallon, Nevada, Mighty Sphincter (1980) in Phoenix, Arizona and Your Funeral (1982) in Denver, Colorado.

These early West Coast deathrock bands took the pre-existing base of punk rock and added dark yet playful themes borrowed from horror movies, film noir, surrealism, religious imagery, etc.[8] A couple of bands blended hardcore punk with a gothic sound, most notably T.S.O.L.[9] and Burning Image.

These early post-punk deathrock bands were not immediately identified as part of a new subgenre of punk; they were simply considered a darker flavor of punk and were not yet considered part of a separate musical movement. During this time, these bands would play at the same venues as punk, hardcore and new wave bands. A similar situation arose in New York circa 1978-79, albeit on a much smaller scale, in which influential punk rock bands likeThe Cramps and The Misfits, as well as The Mad (fronted by future horror-film effects artist Screaming Mad George) had incorporated extensive horror themes into their lyrics, visuals, and stage show, though they did not use the term "deathrock" to describe themselves.[citation needed]

Merger

Around the same time as deathrock was emerging as a distinctively darker subgenre of punk rock in the United States, other subgenres of punk and post-punk were developing independently in the UK.

By 1982, a wave of darker, more tribal post-punk bands had coalesced, influenced by punk rock, and the first-generation post-punk bands like Joy Division, Siouxsie and the Banshees and Bauhaus (and specifically the noisier 1980-81 post-punks UK Decay, Killing Joke, and Theatre of Hate). The primary bands in this new movement were Sex Gang Children and Southern Death Cult. Along with Brigandage, Blood and Roses, Ritual, and others, they were dubbed "positive punk" by the UK press to differentiate them from other bands who were attempting to fly under the punk banner, such as the UK 82 and Oi! acts. These positive punk bands featured tribal drumming, high-pitched vocals, scratchy guitar, and bass as melodic lead instrument, and a visual look blending glam with Native American-influenced warpaint and spiky haircuts, the first generation of the UK's post-punk goth bands. Other related bands like Ausgang, Inca Babies, and Bone Orchard shared much of the tribal ethos and spiky look, but took more inspiration from The Birthday Party.

During 1983, a related movement was brewing at a London gothic rock club called the Batcave. Initially envisioned as a venue specializing in glam rock and new wave musical acts, the two main bands which debuted and performed frequently at the Batcave, Specimen and Alien Sex Fiend, developed their own different sounds strongly influenced by horror in British pop culture, which set them apart from the rest of the glam and post-punk scenes in Britain. Also in 1983, Gun Club toured in Europe as did Christian Death which meant the European gothic rock scene and the American deathrock scene were now able to directly influence one another.

By 1984, the term "positive punk" was outdated, and the tribal positive punk bands, the various bands from the Batcave scene, as well as the bands from Leeds (such as The Sisters of Mercy, The March Violets, Red Lorry Yellow Lorry, and others) some of which used drum machines, had all come to be referred to as "gothic" or gothic rock. The same year, California deathrock band Kommunity FK toured with UK gothic rock band Sex Gang Children (and the following year with Alien Sex Fiend) which continued the trend in which American and British movements intermixed. Influenced more by the British scene and less by California, deathrock bands began to form in other parts of the United States, such as Samhain (1983) in Lodi, New Jersey, Gargoyle Sox (1985) in Detroit, Michigan, Shadow of Fear (1985) in Cleveland, Ohio, and Holy Cow (1984) in Boston, Massachusetts (and laterProvidence, Rhode Island). The fertile New York scene featured Scarecrow (1983), Of a Mesh (1983), Chop Shop (1984), Fahrenheit 451 (1984), The Naked and the Dead (1985), Brain Eaters (1986), The Children's Zoo (1986), The Plague (1987), and The Ochrana (1987).

Irreconcilable differences

The mid-1980s marked the second wave of gothic rock, when the sound began to shift away from its punk and post-punk roots and towards the more serious, rock-oriented approach. Bauhaus broke up, Rozz Williams left Christian Death, and the Sisters of Mercy became the dominant and most influential gothic act. The term "gothic rock" became preferred over "deathrock" (previously, they had been used interchangeably), a change which Rozz Williams attributed to the influence of the Sisters of Mercy. As a result, the term "deathrock" was seldom used except in retrospective reference to the Los Angeles bands 45 Grave and Christian Death.

The mid-1990s marked a so-called "third wave of gothic rock," as the music drifted its furthest from the original punk and post-punk sound by incorporating many elements of the industrial music scene at the time (which itself had moved away from experimental noise and into a more dance-rock oriented sound) and the more repetitive and electronic sounds of EBM. Some clubs even completely dropped deathrock and first generation gothic rock from their setlists to appeal to a crossover crowd. These changes alienated many in the goth scene who preferred the livelier, punkier deathrock sound and led them to seek out their earlier deathrock roots.

Revival

Nearly 20 years after deathrock and goth first appeared on the music scenes in southern California and London, the deathrock revival began in southern California. During 1998 in Long Beach, California, owners of the Que Sera, a local bar, asked Jeremy Meza, Dave Skott and Jenn Skott to throw a one-night "old school" gothic Halloween party. After the success of the one-off party, the event quickly evolved into a regular deathrock club called Release the Bats and a focal point in California for the re-emerging deathrock movement. (The club was named after a song by the Australian band The Birthday Party.)

The deathrock revival movement was similar to the original deathrock scene in Los Angeles and the Batcave movement in London, but more unified in the US, UK, and Europe through various record labels. In addition to clubs, the revival scene was centered on concerts, special events, parties, and horror movie screenings. The Internet played a major role in the deathrock revival. Websites and online communities sprang up devoted to the discussion of deathrock music, bands and fashions as well as horror movies.

In terms of differences from the original scene, there was a shift to a more post-punk sound as a result of the influence of the European bands of the 1980s. Also, the apolitical influence of psychobilly discouraged political debates with the potential to fragment the scene (however some famous deathrock acts, such as Rudimentary Peni, were originally anarcho-punk bands, and there existed some slight crossover between the two scenes). TheDrop Dead Festival, similar to psychobilly's Hootenanny, gave bands with smaller fan bases an opportunity to play before larger crowds.[10]

A later trend toward "lo-fi goth" music in the indie scene developed partially out of the deathrock revival, exemplified by Grave Babies, which some described as the fifth wave of gothic music.


Artists


Only Theatre of Pain, Christian Death's 1982 debut album, is widely held as the first American gothic album[11] and cannot be easily classified as either a darker flavor of punk, horror punk, or gothic rock. As a result, Rozz Williams, the deceased lead singer of Christian Death, Shadow Project, Premature Ejaculation, etc. was considered one of the most influential artists in the goth and deathrock scene. Patrick Mata of Kommunity FK is another influential male deathrocker, as is Larry Rainwater of Ex-VoTo.[citation needed]

Dinah Cancer has been referred to as the "Queen of Deathrock", the "Goddess of Deathrock" and the "High Priestess of Deathrock" for her role as the frontwoman for 45 Grave during a time when female lead singers were still considered somewhat of a rarity. Other influential female deathrockers include Eva O and Voodoo Church's Tina Winter.

Many artists in the United States released EPs and LPs prior to 1982 which would now be considered deathrock, such as the previously mentioned Theatre of Ice and Mighty Sphincter. British bands also made major contributions to the deathrock sound by adding a strong post-punk influence, including Joy Division, Bauhaus and Siouxsie and the Banshees. Other bands from around the world added their own unique contribution to deathrock, including Xmal Deutschland in Germany, Virgin Prunes from Ireland, and The Birthday Party in Australia.

However, the Sisters of Mercy, who are frequently played at deathrock clubs, are generally not considered to be a deathrock band, as the most prominent example of their sound, Floodland, has more in common with second-wave gothic rock bands (as they were the second wave's prime influence).

Quelle: Wikipedia
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Bedeutende Vertreter (Revival)


· Astrovamps

· Bloody Dead and Sexy

· Cadra Ash

· Chants of Maldoror

· Christ Vs. Warhol

· Cinema Strange

· Devils Whorehouse(später Death Wolf)

· Diva Destruction

· Frank the Baptist

· Murder at the Registry

· Scarlet’s Remains

Quelle: Wikipedia


en/genre/death_rock.txt · Last modified: 2019/03/24 16:44 (external edit)