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As an artist and artist today the people who are creative in the visual arts, the applied art, the performing arts, as well as the literature and the music are described, the works of artistic creation, which are designated as works, are known as works of art. The sum of all the works of an artist is called his work.
In the context of German intellectual history, on the other hand, artistry is not just a profession but a human form of existence. For Goethe and Schiller, the artist was the epitome of an educated man. This philosophical conception runs as a thread from the classical period, through Wilhelm von Humboldt, Thomas Mann, and many others. The general social reduction of the comprehensive concept of the artist as a creative, educated individual of the art of life to the sole occupational designation took place only in the last century.
The distinction between artistic activity and craftsmanship is fluid. The degree of originality of an artistic idea, a design, an execution or a presentation can be decisive. Likewise, the border to "beneficial" technology is not always clearly identifiable.
Apart from pure freelance artists, clients for artistic work are, in addition to private individuals, often government agencies, churches, companies or patrons, in some cases grants and scholarships. In addition, the artist can also be busy (directors of the drama, professional musician, historically also the court painter).
Clients who do not respect the freedom of art often demand that artists fulfill religious or political requirements and accept iconographic and fashionable interventions.
Legal definition in Germany
The German Social Insurance Act in Germany provides:
"Artist in the sense of this law is, who creates, teaches or teaches music, performing or visual art. A publicist within the meaning of this Act is who is a writer, a journalist or otherwise a journalist or a journalist. "
- § 2 Act on the Social Insurance of Independent Artists and Publishers
The law is based on typical professional images: A graphic designer or musician is regarded as an artist, a furniture maker as a craftsman. The German artist's social fund mentions four occupational spaces, which receive their achievements: fine art, performing arts, music and word. Visual communication and design are counted among the visual arts. Writers with or without claim to art are active in the field of literary activity. The turnover tax rate for artists and freelancers is 7% in Germany.
Legal definition in Austria
The term defines the artist social insurance fund law:
"Artist in the sense of this Federal Act is, who in the fields of the visual arts, the performing arts, the music, the literature, the film art or in one of the contemporary formations of the areas of the art on the basis of his / her artistic ability within a artistic activity works of art. "
- § 2 (1) Artists' Social Insurance Fund Act
The law openly defines the concept by means of the formulation "contemporary formations" and is, overall, very factory-oriented:
Artist is who is art-creating.
An artistic activity, according to the tax jurisdiction, is "always given when a personal self-creative activity is developed in a comprehensive art subject on the basis of artistic talent." The term self-creation also applies to reproducing activities among musicians, conductors, actors and directors and artists as artistically extended. Furthermore, the second paragraph of the Social Insurance Act of the Social Insurance Act supplements:
"Anyone who has completed an artistic university education has the artistic qualification for the pursuit of artistic activities covered by higher education."
Thus, professionally trained as an artist fall under the concept of artistic activity, which in particular includes the teaching activity.
In terms of income tax, an artist can be employed both as a service worker (employee) and as a self-employed person, and then generally reckons on a work contract basis. In terms of turnover tax, the term is relevant to the fact that freelance artists in Austria only charge 10% sales tax.
"Artist" is a self-evident professional term in the everyday language, supported by demands of feminist linguistics, and is used in "state artists" as "artists", as is the case in Germany, or the above mentioned Austrian artist social insurance fund law. In this case, gender-appropriate language has become everyday culture. The intention is to make the share of women's achievements more visible in art, their repressed history in art, and to make the artist's job situation different. On the other hand, formulations such as "female artists" are the exception.
Often, the degree of a proficiency is to be an artist, stereotypically measured by an education; so art is taught in the classical sense rather to study at colleges or art colleges, while commercial, pragmatic art aspects are rather taught at Fachhochschulen. In addition, an education to the artist does not matter; there are numerous autodidacts in the art scene, who are keen to have no education. Whoever is regarded as an artist depends decisively on the prevailing or individual concept of art.