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A cover version is in the music the rewritten of a piece of music by another interpreter.

distinction between
Basically to distinguish from the cover version are:

-the remake, a reinterpretation by the same interpreter
-the quotation (music quotation) that only takes elements of another piece and refers to them in the context of an original, creative performance (for example, in Beatle Bones and Smokin 'Stones by Captain Beefheart)
-the paraphrase, which is a separate piece, but which works through an extensive reference to an epoch, an interpreter, or a piece of it
- the plagiarism that imitates a piece of music without mentioning the originator, and thus gives the impression of originality (for example, My Sweet Lord by George Harrison, an "unconscious" plagiarism from He's So Fine of Chiffons).
- Remix the individual voices or audio tracks of an existing recording remix. In this case, as a rule, the first recording is still available, so that no new phonogram is produced, and accordingly, no further phonogram production according to § 85 UrhG. The remix is ​​usually an original recording with new tracks underlined and is thus a processing of the original recording. The author (especially composer, lyricist) or deputy his music publisher must be asked for his consent. Since the original recording is used, it is also necessary to approve the record company, which published the original title.
- A mashup, in which the instrumental or vocal track is crossed illegally with tracks of other artists similar to a collage.

legal issues
Cover versions are subject to copyright, which is codified in Germany in the Copyright Act (UrhG). Legally, the cover version is always a "different transformation" in the sense of § 23 UrhG, even if it is faithfully reproduced. The German Federal Court of Justice describes as the cover version the re-recording of an original work, while the music industry sees in the cover version the re-production and publication of a pre-existing and already published music work. In the case of a cover version, it is ideally not an editing, but a work-related utilization of the original. The rights to use a cover version may be obtained from the collecting society of the original. Minor changes due to another arrangement are covered by the purpose of § 39 (2) UrhG. Significant changes, however, are processing or other transformations. A German lyrics to a foreign language original is editing.

The question is whether the new version is a close match with the original, or whether it has its own creative output. In the last case, it is not a cover version, but an adaptation according to § 3 UrhG. If the version is finally publicly reproduced or reproduced on phonograms, the copyright owner is protected. If the original was published and registered with a collecting society (in Germany: GEMA) no consent of the originator of the original is required; the registration of the reproduced cover version at the collecting society is sufficient. The publisher's music publishing must only be approved if the work has been undertaken with a separate creative part by altering the melodic-harmonious form and / or the text. Then, the new version has a creation height that is subject to authorization. The BGH has taken over the usual use of the term Coverversion for the cases of the re-recording of a work of an original work and speaks of the mere interpretation of an original work, which remains unaffected within the new recording in such a way that processing in the copyright sense is not present. According to the established case law of the Federal Court of Justice (BGH), a piece of music enjoys copyright protection under Section 2 of the German Copyright Act (UrhG), if it fulfills the protection requirements of the law, that is, the necessary individuality as a peculiar intellectual creation. If the chorus has an irregular melody due to a phase shift which is unusual in the popular music, and thus acquires an individual aesthetic power of expression, the creative peculiarity of musical works lies in it. This also manifests itself to the layman in the field of music in the fact that he hears this melody as known and reassigning it to the composer. In the case of musical works, the jurisprudence makes lower demands on this level of creativity according to the principle of the so-called "small coin".

Cover versions must clearly refer to the underlying original by naming the originator and music publisher. Violations of the right to prosecute the name are more likely to occur in the area where the dependence of the work on a particular pre-existing work is questioned. If there is a lack of the original source, the plagiarism is unlawful.

Problem of demarcation from the original

The musicological delimitation of original and cover version is not always easy. The original is the first version of a composition that has not yet been produced, which was recorded as the first version. Strictly speaking, the recording date of a composition, rather than the copyright date, decides whether or not an original or a cover version is available. As a result, it is theoretically possible that a song which was published earlier was later recorded than a later released version; the later released version is, however, the original. Often the exact data is not available, so it must remain open without further information, which version is to be classified as original.

An example of the difficult demarcation is provided by Conway Twitty with his hit Lonely Blue Boy (MGM # 12857), which was recorded on 11 November 1959 and published on 21 December 1959; the song reached a sixth place on the pop charts. He became known to the public and the original Conway Twitty as performers. Composed by Fred Wise and Ben Wiseman, the song was recorded by Elvis Presley as "Danny" on January 23, 1958, and was only used in the film King Creole, which was released on July 2, 1958 in the USA. However, a recording of the sound was only made posthumously on 1 December 1978 on LP A Legendary Performer Vol. 3 ("includes 8 previously unavailable performances"). The fact that Elvis Presley sang the original is made more difficult by the different title.

to form
Often, success-tested original templates are selected, but frequently completely unknown songs, which only come to success in the cover version.

There are both cover versions, which in the arrangement and sound strictly to the original hold, as well as versions, which are hardly recognizable.

Chubby Checkers's version of The Twist, whose original was composed by Hank Ballard and recorded on November 11, 1958, belongs to the former. Checker's version, recorded in 1960, had so striking similarities with the original that Hank Ballard thought it was his play. Checker's version was identical in pitch, rhythm, and singing. While the original, especially B-side, was defeated, Checker's cover version developed into a Millionenseller.

Vanilla Fudge - You Keep Me Hangin 'On
You Keep Me Hanging On was originally recorded by the Supremes, who recorded the tempting song with the typical rimshot technique on June 30 and August 1, 1966, and released on October 12, 1966 (Motown # 1101). The track has all the characteristics of the Motown sound, with a duration of 2 minutes 47 - like all Motown singles of that time - predestined for airplay and reached the first place on the pop charts.

On June 5, 1968, Vanilla Fudge published a completely contrasting version, which had little in common with the original. The sound has psychedelic approaches, the rhythm is screwed down to the "traumatic slowdown", garnished with "stretched guitar breaks" and alienated to the "limit of psychological tolerability". A run down to 2 minutes of 50 had the single produced by George "Shadow" Morton (Atco # 6590), while the play on the LP Vanilla Fudge, released in September 1967, had a duration of 7 minutes 20 (recorded in just one take) , The single reached a sixth place in the pop hit parade.

In June 1987, Kim Wilde came in first place on the US chart with her version recorded and released in the previous year, just like the Supremes.

Beat music
Especially during the initial phase of beat music, it was not uncommon for bands to start their careers with cover versions of their idols. Best examples are the groups The Beatles and The Rolling Stones, both of which had numerous pieces by Chuck Berry and blues composers in their repertoire. Coverversions were also frequently launched in order to help their original performers and authors become more popular. For example, the song Blowin 'in the Wind by Bob Dylan was initially a hit in the version of Peter, Paul and Mary before his author made the breakthrough. In the 1960s, it was also common for British performers to cover the British market for the pieces that had previously been introduced to the US market by American artists. An example of this is Bend Me, Shape Me of the American Breed, which was published in its British version of the Amen Corner just six months later in June 1968. The American breed of the British Amen Corner could not be concealed, but this was the case at Wild Thing by the American group Wild Ones. When the original appeared on November 1, 1965, it remained without a hitparade resonance and fell into oblivion. It was only when the British band The Troggs took up this early punk production in February 1966, a million-sellers came out.

More successful than the original
In some cases, cover versions were even more successful and popular than the original recordings, such as All Along the Watchtower, originally by Bob Dylan, but for later live versions, the cover version of Jimi Hendrix, or I Will Always Love You by Whitney Houston, originally from Dolly Parton, also comes from Without You by Mariah Carey, originally by the Badfinger group. Another example is Black Magic Woman, in the original by Fleetwood Mac, the far more famous version of the song comes from Santana. I Love Rock 'n' Roll by Joan Jett was originally the B side of a single by the band Arrows. The most commercially successful song Fernando of the Swedish pop group ABBA was originally written for Anni-Frid Lyngstad's solo album Frida ensam.

For Germany there would be more than seven bridges you have to go, which Peter Maffay covered 1980 by the GDR band Karat. Some of the songs and composers are popular and are always cov- ered, such as the Cat Stevens songs The First Cut Is the Deepest (for example Rod Stewart or Sheryl Crow) and Father and Son (cover version, for example by Ronan Keating). Partially, these versions are known as the original, such as Sinéad O'Connor's version of Prince 'Nothing Compares 2 U, Leona Lewis' version of Run, which is from Snow Patrol, or Janis Joplin's version of Kris Kristofferson's title Me and Bobby McGee. This sometimes goes so far that the cover version is kept for the original. For example, B. largely unknown that Sailing, one of the greatest hits of Rod Stewart, in whose version is also only a cover version. The original of The Sutherland Brothers, on the other hand, is almost unknown. Some cover versions of Joe Cocker like With a Little Help from My Friends or The Letter have at least achieved the popularity of the original Beatles and Box Tops.

Cover versions by sampling since the 1990s
In the 1990s, Sampling developed new forms of cover version, which used particularly familiar pop music from the 1970s and 1980s with a high degree of recognition. Sampling can still be seen as a cover version, but most of the editing is legally. While the samples in Europe were particularly frequently covered with dance-beats, American hip-hop producers combined prominent samples with new rap lyrics. An example of this is the song "He Got Game" by the Public Enemy group (1998), whose music comes from the Buffalo Springfield song For What It's Worth (1967), Stephen Stills, the author of the original, the striking guitars for the Coverversion new.

The intention, however, shifted from a purely artistic to a purely commercial matter. In many cases the well-known, catchy old melodies were underlined with a bass track and monotonous, often alienated with the computer. Especially in the dance and hands-up area many performers are limited to simply re-recording old titles of different artists and decades. Examples include Novaspace, Groove Coverage or Jan Wayne. Often these cover versions have little in common with the originals, for example the title poison sung in the original by Alice Cooper and later covered by Groove Coverage.

A particularly important motivation for cover versions is the economic interest. Not only the artists, producer and musiclabel of the new version, but also the authors and the music publisher of the covered work, deserve to be seen in cover versions. The commercial background of cover versions has always played a role, but especially since the late 1990s, an "exploitation" of the originals has been observed. Above all, the number of covered songs compared to new songs increased again. In the 1980s, some cover versions of older songs in the charts (for example, You Keep Me Hangin 'On by Kim Wilde), a certain number of cover versions in the charts became regular, especially at the beginning of the 21st century , On September 3, 2001, for example, seven songs of the songs placed in the top 10 German singlecharts were cover versions.

Unusual cover versions
Since the beginning of the punk and post-punk music bands have covered, deconstructed and reinterpreted classical rock and pop songs in their own way. An example is (I Can not Get No) Satisfaction, originally from the Rolling Stones, in the version of Devo. The newly arranged pieces often sound louder (voluminous), faster and harder than the originals. Many punk cover versions include small ska / reggaeparts. In the 1980s, successful bands such as Heaven 17, Siouxsie and the Banshees, and other albums that featured exclusively cover versions were released. The dead trousers covered or edited numerous pieces of music.

Since the beginning of the 21st century it has become popular to transfer well-known hits into a different musical genre. So there are a number of bands, such as the Berlin The BossHoss or Texas Lightning, who play pop hits in the country music style. Heavy-metal-classics are played by the Sweden Hellsongs in the easy-listening and pop style, by the American singer Richard Cheese plays pop, hip-hop and metal as a swing or lounge music, as well as for the band, the British Ten Masked Men transform Popsongs in Death Metal and Me First and the Gimme Gimmes Songs of different kinds in Punkmusik. As early as 1996, The Mike Flowers Pops caught up with easy-listening versions of Rocksongs such as Wonderwall by Oasis and Light My Fire by The Doors. Other examples are the punkrock version of the chanton Comme d'habitude by Sid Vicious and the Bluesrock version of the American national anthem Star-Spangled Banner by Jimi Hendrix.

According to the Guinness Book of Records, Yesterday is the song that has hitherto been most often covered on phonograms by the Beatles with over 1600 versions between 1965 and 1985. The BMI assumes that the song has been performed over seven million times worldwide. There is also a broad consensus among professional circles that George Gershwin's summertime, with about 2600 versions, is also one of the most covered songs of popular music. The review of such records is difficult because the only source is the recovery society. However, the British Performing Right Society (PRS), responsible for Yesterday, is not transparent.

en/music_knowledge/coverversion.txt · Last modified: 2019/03/24 16:44 (external edit)